- The pilot-in-command, the pilot-in-command, did not react correctly to the lateral deviation of the Airbus A380.
- The PF did not respond to two go-around calls by the co-pilot, the pilot monitoring (PM).
- Singapore’s TSIB concluded that this was an unstable approach and that avoidance was warranted.
The Singapore Transport Safety Investigation Board (TSIB), under the Singapore Ministry of Transport (MOT), said three runway edge lights were detected when the Emirates Airbus A380, registered as A6-EVJ, drifted to the right of Runway 02L centreline. It was announced in detail that it was damaged. After landing at Singapore Changi Airport (SIN) in March 2023.
Misconceptions about fighting
According to the TSIB’s final report, at the time of the incident, the captain was a pilot (PF), the co-pilot was a pilot (PM), and the Airbus A380 was flying between Dubai International Airport (DXB) without any abnormalities. . And SIN. Initial weather information indicated that conditions were as follows: “good,” When the crew contacted Singapore Approach, the latest data from the Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS) did not indicate any rain on SIN. As a precaution, the crew prepared to land on both a dry and wet runway to the airport.
Air Traffic Control (ATC) then diverted the flight from the Singapore approach to Changi Tower, with the flight crew using the Instrument Landing System (ILS) to approach runway 02L. Approximately 15 nautical miles (27.7 kilometers) south of SIN, the pilot observed some clouds over the airport, but after checking the weather radar, concluded that the cloud accumulation was minimal. However, the runway controller informed TSIB that it was raining over SIN and the ATIS information was updated accordingly. “The flight crew told the investigation team that the aircraft was flying through heavy rain during its final approach.” TSIB continued.
As the aircraft descended, after the pilot sighted the runway and was below 200 feet (60.96 meters) above ground level (AGL), the rain suddenly became heavier, surprising the PF. The pilot told investigators this affected his control of the aircraft, but did not provide further details. Flight His Data According to his recorder (FDR) data, the PF disengaged the autopilot at an altitude of 180 feet (54.8 m) above sea level.
Both pilots then noticed that the aircraft had deviated from the runway centerline, and the co-pilot yelled: “center line” Remind the captain to align the aircraft with the runway. The PF applied sidestick inputs to counter the drift, and the captain informed the TSIB that the offset from the centerline was still within safe limits. However, at approximately 30 feet (9.1 m) above sea level, the Prime Minister requested a go-around, to which the captain responded: it’s okay. ” The captain later stated that he did not understand what the Prime Minister was saying, even though the co-pilot again instructed the captain to turn back during landing. The PF did not respond to the Prime Minister’s call and informed the TSIB that it had not heard of the Prime Minister’s second request.
Just before the aircraft landed on runway 02L, the PF applied a sharp rudder input to the left, resulting in less than 0.5 degrees of left bank, and the aircraft turned left toward the centerline. “The aircraft continued to drift to the right.”
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A380 tire goes flat
Immediately thereafter, the PF removed the rudder input and counterattacked with a starboard rudder input, resulting in the aircraft having a bank angle of approximately 4 degrees to the right. Upon landing at SIN, the aircraft landed near the end line of the runway and continued to veer slightly to the right, and the PF successfully maneuvered the Airbus A380 back toward the centreline. The aircraft taxied and returned to the gate without incident.
At the same time, Changi Tower’s duty manager noticed that the white runway light icon had turned blue. This indicates that more than 15% of his runway lights may be out of service or his two adjacent lights may be damaged. It could also mean that there was a failure in the power supply to the runway edge lights.
SIN’s Fault Management Center (FMC) informed the duty manager that three adjacent runway edge lights were damaged, but the rest were still operational. In addition, the Airbus A380’s Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) alerts the pilot to low tire pressure, and the ground crew informs the pilot that one of the right (RH) main landing gear (MLG) tires is punctured when the aircraft is in flight. I informed you. I was at the gate. Upon further inspection, another of his tires was found to have damage to his RH MLG tires. “It’s a circular incision.”
Meanwhile, ATC dispatched two runway inspection vehicles to inspect the runway and taxiway used by the A380 for foreign object debris (FOD). Air traffic controllers initially suspected that the low pressure warning was unrelated to the damage to the three runway lights, as no FOD was detected on the first vehicle. A second inspection vehicle found FOD and three broken runway lights. Debris was found on the runway shoulder, grass and taxiway W7.
Misjudging a drift to the right
TSIB noted that, per Airbus guidelines, pilots should increase roll input instead of rudder input, which could correct the lateral deviation. “Applying ladder inputs is not a good way to correct lateral misalignment.” Investigators pointed out. Additionally, Emirates’ Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) state that if the landing cannot be completed as instructed, a go-around is required, and Airbus’ documentation states that a go-around will be required unless the thrust reverser is deactivated. It is stated that it can be done. got engaged.
“In this case, the PF knew that the aircraft had drifted to the right of centerline, but misjudged the magnitude of the drift and found that the offset from the runway centerline was still acceptable for a safe landing. I thought it was possible.”
TSIB said this approach could be classified as unstable, meaning a go-around would have been prudent. Even if the PF stated that the aircraft’s handling characteristics had changed, Singapore investigators could not be certain. “How did the sudden increase in rain intensity affect, or could have affected, the handling of the PF’s aircraft?”
Additionally, while ATC is not required to confirm that pilots are up to date with ATIS information, ATIS at the time announced that it was raining over SIN. Still, this was not a significant change in the weather, so air traffic controllers decided there was no significant change in the weather and therefore did not inform the Emirates crew about the rain. However, the TSIB noted that this did not contribute to the accident as both pilots had seen the rain and could have responded accordingly, including by initiating a go-around.
In conclusion, TSIB concluded that the PF was unable to correct the drift to the right and considered a go-around, even though Emirates’ SOP requires it to abandon the approach if a go-around is requested. He said he did not. The PF told investigators that it had not heard the prime minister’s call. “The PF did not ask the Prime Minister to repeat or clarify its message, instead choosing to continue with the landing.”
Photo: Global Guy | Shutterstock
Following the incident, Emirates shared information about the incident with all its pilots on March 17, 2023, and began incorporating the incident as part of regular pilot training in August. Finally, he reminded the pilots that once a go-around is issued, they must execute it and be ready for the Prime Minister to take over control of the aircraft.
Additionally, SIN’s air traffic service provider conducted a briefing to ATC advising controllers to inform pilots about general weather conditions, such as rain, over the airport. The TSIB issued only two safety recommendations. Emirates reminded pilots of appropriate actions to correct landing deviations and emphasized the importance of crew resource management (CRM).
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- IATA/ICAO code:
- EK/United Arab Emirates
- Airline type:
- full service carrier
- dubai international airport
- Year of establishment:
- Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum
- United Arab Emirates